Frequency control

1. Description of the Use Case

1.1. Name of the Use Case

IDArea /Domain(s)/Zone(s)Name of the Use Case
1Area: Energy system, Domain: Transmission, DER, Customer Premises, Zones: Operation, Market,MAESHA

1.2. Version Management

Version No.DateName of author(s)ChangesApproval status
1.02021-10-31T00:00:00Andraž Andolšek (cyberGRID), Christoph Gutschi (cyberGRID), Marjolaine Farré (Trialog), Elchaysse Soudjae (Electricité de Mayotte),First versionFinal

1.3. Scope and Objectives of Use Case

ScopeThe scope of this use case is to examine the use of flexibility to restore system frequency to its nominal value of 50 Hz.
Objective(s)The main objective of this use case is to stabilize the electricity grid of the islands by establishing balancing services. Implementing the balancing services framework will help system operators to maintain the equilibrium between consumption and generation while minimizing the frequency deviation from the nominal values.
Related business case(s)Linked to “Voltage control” UC (UC2) as potential conflicts within flexibility products could appear.

1.4. Narrative of Use Case

Short description

This high-level use case describes different scenarios incl. all required steps for the implementation of a tender based frequency control system. The UC differentiates between FCR (frequency containment reserve) and FRR (frequency restoration reserve) services. The explained approach is technology agnostic and supports any kind of flexibility resource, that can meet the technical requirements for balancing service provision. A common approach to handle different technologies for flexibility provision (industrial demand response, residential demand response aggregated by a VPP, smart charging of electric vehicles, aggregation of renewables (PV) via a VPP, battery energy storage, power-to-hydrogen electrolyser) is explained.

The scope of the use case includes dimensioning of balancing service reserves for an islanding system, prequalification of suitable distributed energy assets and intermediary platforms (Virtual Power Plants, VPPs), tendering and contracting balancing services, balancing service activation, monitoring, validation, and remuneration.

All periodic communication between the system operator and the market participants, like bidding, monitoring and activation is organized via a Flexibility Management and Trading Platform (FMTP).

The use case focuses on the situation on the Island of Mayotte and aims to adapt to the historically grown infrastructure and processes, but also takes into account updates of the system operators SCADA in the near future.

Complete description

Introduction to balancing services for frequency control

The system operator Electricité de Mayotte (EDM), responsible for grid operation and supply of electric energy, needs to maintain the network frequency within a narrow bandwidth (+300 / -200 mHz) around 50 Hz. Frequency deviation is a consequence of an imbalance between generation (feed-in to the grid) and consumption (extraction from the grid) including losses of the grid itself. These imbalances are mainly caused by unpredictable fluctuations of the load (low impact on the grid frequency), general imprecisions in the load forecasting that cause improper generation schedules (medium impact) or rare fault-induced disconnection of entire branches or substations or even unexpected loss of generation (high impact). Until now, the electricity system in Mayotte relied on fast adaption of the generation of spinning diesel engines to balance the load fluctuations. These diesel engines also cover for the main generation schedule.

The mechanisms to maintain the grid frequency within a narrow bandwidth can be distinguished between three main types of control, as shown in Figure 24. After an incident like the unexpected outage of a generator, the imbalance between load and generation causes an immediate decrease of the grid frequency, which is mainly limited by the kinetic energy stored in spinning machines (synchronous inertia). The higher the inertia of the rotating machines connected to the grid, the lower the gradient of frequency change (Df/Dt), also known as rate of change in frequency (ROCOF). The frequency stabilization by inertia is a physical effect, responding spontaneously to any frequency gradient and acting in both directions. New generations of inverters can provide a frequency gradient dependent feed-in (with only a minor time lag), which can be considered as “virtual inertia”.

[See figure “Overview of phases of frequency control after a major outage” below]

The frequency containment reserve (FCR), also known as primary control, provides a variable feed-in linearly depending on the deviation of the frequency (Df) from the target value of 50 Hz. FCR is required to act very fast. The required full activation time (FAT) is determined by the considered maximum imbalance (e.g., due to loss of the largest generation unit in the system), the maximum allowed frequency deviation and the typical inertia of the system. FCR is a very fast service that requires frequency measurements and control logic directly at the providing asset, usually a generator or battery. Some loads controlled by power electronics might also be feasible to provide FCR. Usually, FCR is a symmetric service that acts in both directions. The linear function of FCR power only depending on the frequency deviation enables a fast response to limit the frequency deviation but does not allow to bring the frequency back to the target value. Some transmission system operators (TSO), e.g., in the NORDPOOL, differentiate between Frequency Containment Reserve for Normal Operation (FCR-N) and Frequency Containment Reserve for Disturbances (FCR-D). FCR-N is a symmetric service providing upregulation and downregulation with a linear characteristic while FCR-D differentiate between upward (increase feed-in or decrease consumption) and downward (decrease feed-in or increase consumption) regulation. FCR-D is only activated after exceeding a threshold value of frequency deviation.

[See figure “FCR architecture overview” below]

The frequency restoration reserve FRR is managed by the system operator (SO) using the automatic generation control (AGC). The AGC calculates setpoints for multiple balancing providing assets (generators, batteries but also fast and precisely controllable loads like electrolyser). After reception of the setpoint the assets will adapt the power output within a defined FAT that may be longer than required for FCR. The AGC aims to bring the system frequency back to the target value. FRR requires reliable communication between the central AGC and the distributed assets. FRR can be divided into positive products for upward control and negative products for downward control. European TSO differentiate between faster, automatically controlled reserves (aFRR), that follow to instantaneous setpoints, and slower reserves that might be manually controlled (mFRR) and follow to received schedules.

[See figure “FRR architecture overview” below]

FCR and FRR provision in Europe usually require active power measurements with high precision (e.g., 0.5% error class) and submission of data points to the SO in short intervals (e.g., 1-2 s) for the purpose of real-time monitoring of provision and ex-post validation of the provided services.

Additional Emergency measures will be activated in case that the frequency regulation system failed, and the frequency deviation exceeds defined thresholds. Emergency measure can include load shedding, disconnection of large, robust consumers or disconnection of generators. The rules for frequency protection devices to disconnect sensible assets in case of high frequency deviations must be defined accordingly to support system frequency stabilization and to avoid negative feedback on the frequency control mechanisms.


The rising number of PV power plants to be installed and connected to the main grid in Mayotte may increase the difficulty of frequency control as the production is highly dependent on weather conditions challenging to forecast (e.g., a passing cloud leads to a decline in PV production) which may increase the imbalances between generation and consumption. With increasing number of PV generation, partly replacing diesel generators the ratio of spinning machines in the system will be reduced which has negative impact on the synchronous inertia. To avoid reaching low frequency thresholds leading to load shedding (48.5 Hz, 48 Hz and 47.5 Hz), the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) granted an exemption to EDM to operate the grid at a higher frequency. The current mean frequency value is thus of 50.15 Hz, higher than the 50 Hz stipulated in the EU Electricity Network code.

The main balancing service to cope with the frequency deviation currently applied on the island of Mayotte is the “primary reserve” (covering FCR and FRR), which is estimated at 15% of the daily demand and mainly supported by the EDM diesel generation sets of Longoni and Badamiers. The generators are limited to operate at 80-85% of their maximal capacity. For the past few years, the primary reserve hadn’t exceeded 8 MW, but this will change soon with an expected rising demand and RES integration.

To stabilize the frequency in the island and ease the penetration of renewable energy, the French Energy Regulatory Commission CRE launched a call for tender to install a battery for frequency control in July 2018. This 4 MW/2 MWh battery should be installed and be ready to operate in October 2021. Following this installation, the exemption (of higher system frequency) should disappear for the time-being. It is estimated that further investments will be needed to fulfil the requirements that are foreseen in the future.

One of the goals when considering the frequency use case is to find a way for moving from the energy assets providing frequency services with the help of fossil fuel to assets using renewable energy sources (RES) and Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS). To further reduce the primary reserve provided by the EDM’s diesel generation sets new sources for providing frequency regulation services are needed to have a direct impact on reduction of CO2 emissions.

The main challenges when implementing the frequency control framework are related to the identification of sufficient assets from RES to reduce the required capacity of fossil fueled generators that are capable to provide similar reliable frequency services.

The use case describes the interactions between the main actors and platforms but doesn’t discuss the details of the balancing products. The details of the designed balancing products will be defined Deliverable D4.1 Report detailing the energy market framework and specific product design details.

For the MAESHA project, it has been decided to examine how different flexibility sources could support the frequency control on the island:

•Industrial Demand Response

Industry’s main purpose is manufacturing of goods or provision of other services. Some industrial assets are additionally able to provide a certain help to the system operator by adjusting their internal manufacturing process and thus increase or decrease the consumption for the time being (load shifting) and help minimizing the frequency deviation. Such industrial energy assets usually have some restrictions, such as limited duration of delivery (e.g., max 4 h), poor controllability (e.g., ON-OFF operation), or can provide such action only at a certain time of the day or year. Therefore, industrial demand response is not considered as a primary source for providing balancing services to the power grid, but they may serve as secondary source for additional support when other services are already fully activated (e.g., for emergency measures).

• Residential Demand Response managed by a virtual power plant (VPP)

Residential customers may have flexible loads that end-users do not necessarily need instantaneously to ensure their comfort, e.g., air-conditioning units and electric heating, but also dishwashers, washing machines, cloth dryers, etc. Optimally controlling the on/off times of these devices, considering local frequency deviations, can help in ensuring the frequency stability. Depending on the characteristics of the device, the activation time and activation duration differ. Heat pumps or air conditioning units can be used for frequency response, considering the heat storage capacity of the building or heat storage in a hot water tank. The activation duration depends upon the stored heat capacity in the building or the tank and the comfort requirements of the end-users. These units can be activated very fast (remote switch-off) but their availability is difficult to forecast.

• Smart Charging of electric vehicles (EV) and vehicle to grid (V2G)

Smart charging of EV can be a source of consumption flexibility and theoretically be used even for balancing services. The challenges for provision of FRR by an EV are linked to the prediction of the charging process’ time and duration as well as the limited hours per day, when EV charging can be used for load shifting. Nevertheless, the forecasting of consumption and flexibility becomes easier on a fleet of EVs, as such an aggregate of a higher number of EV’s can provide ancillary services reliably using a minor share of the predicted consumption. Load reduction in EV charging can be achieved by reducing the charging power (e.g., switch from 3-phase to 1-phase charging) of a certain number of vehicles. Advanced fleet management might also allow downward services by increasing the charging power during the requested period. Feed-in of energy stored in the EV’s batteries (V2G) will been investigated as another possibility of upward regulation by EVs but comes with practical drawbacks like possible reduction of battery lifetime and the need for bidirectional inverters. Due to the nature of the fleet management and lower frequency of data acquisition, EV charging will be preferably applied for mFRR than for aFRR or FCR like frequency services.

• Virtual Power Plant (VPP) aggregating RES

The variability of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, are causing continuous, small frequency deviations due to their hard to predict short-term dynamics and their lack of synchronous inertia to stabilize the frequency during disturbances. Lowering the output of PV plants (downward regulation) during high frequency periods can support frequency stabilization. If PVs are operated below their maximal inverter power, PV plants can inject additional power into the grid with different activation times, ranging from seconds to minutes during low frequency periods (upward regulation). The latter will result in a reduction of overall generation or require the installation of PV batteries. The activation duration depends on the amount of reserve kept for upward frequency response and will be the result of a cost-benefit analysis, where the outcome depends on the remuneration of the different frequency response products compared to the value of electric energy fed-in by PV. In the last years, much development effort has been made on virtual inertia provided by PV and wind power, which might become state-of-the-art within the next decades.

• Battery Energy Storage System

By supplying or absorbing power in response to deviations from the nominal frequency and imbalances between supply and demand, the rapid response of a BESS will provide a frequency stabilizing services. The fast response capability of BESS allows them to participate in all kinds of frequency response (e.g., FCR, FRR) or even a fast or enhanced frequency response markets (activation in less than 5 s). The BESS will also provide virtual inertia by modulating active power as a function of the ROCOF. The duration of the service provision will be determined by the SoC. BESS providing ancillary services will require an additional charge management to maintain the state of charge (SOC) within predefined limits (e.g., 30%<SOC<70%) in order to ensure the continuous availability of upward and downward regulation ability. Load management (consumption or feed-in) is based on schedules and should be communicated with the SO, e.g., via an intraday program. The BESS should be able to provide multiple balancing services and perform load management in parallel.

• Power-to-Hydrogen system

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysers have the capability of modifying their load rapidly with very high ramps rates (i.e., within seconds) and within a wide operational range up to the nominal power. This flexibility can be utilized for large range of frequency regulation (e.g., FCR, aFRR, mFRR). Despite the hydrogen storage capacity, there is no limit in the duration of the service as the service is provided by reducing/increasing the load of the electrolyser.

These DER provide their flexibility to the SO via the FMTP, as indicated in Figure below.

[See figure “Architecture overview for frequency control in MAESHA” below]


This Use Case relies on the following functions: •Asset contraction and technical preparation, incl. pre-qualification •Detection of frequency deviations •Evaluation of flexibility available from different assets or via intermediate platforms •Contracting balancing service products •Calculation of setpoints by the AGC of the SO •Flexibility activation through the Flexibility Management and Trading Platform (FMTP) •Monitoring of service provision •Settlement process to remunerate flexibility activation

This Use Case supports a technology-agnostic approach for provision of balancing services by central or decentralized energy assets. In the MAESHA project, the following technologies are aimed to be investigated in the scope of the use case demonstration: •Detection of frequency deviations, central by SO or decentral by the DER •Frequency regulation by industrial DR •Frequency regulation by residential DR via VPP •Frequency regulation by Smart charging/V2G •Frequency regulation by RES via VPP •Frequency regulation by BESS •Frequency regulation by P2H system

1.5. Key Performance Indicatiors (KPI)

IDNameDescriptionReference to mentioned use case objectives
4.2Frequency range before and after the projectFrom [49.6;50.6] to [49.8;50.3] Hz/,

1.6. Use case conditions


1.7. Further information to the use case for classification/mapping

Relation to other use cases
Level of depth
Obligatory. This UC should be demonstrated under real-life conditions
Generic, regional or national relation
Regional relation
Nature of the use cases
Technical and business UC
Further keywords for classification
Balancing services, load-frequency control, demand response, flexibility, distributed energy resources (DER)

1.8. General remarks

General remarks

2. Diagrams of Use Case

SGAM Business layer of the frequency control use case-specific architecture SGAM Function layer of the frequency control use case-specific architecture Overview of phases of frequency control after a major outage FCR achitecture overview FRR achitecture overview Architecture overview for frequency control in MAESHA

3. Technical Details

3.1. Actors

Actor NameActor TypeActor DescriptionFurther information specific to this Use Case
TSOBusiness actorTransmission System Operator
Flexibility providerBusiness actorGeneric presentation of the energy asset capable of providing flexibility on request (balancing service provider)
Residential prosumerBusiness actorA residential party that consumers electricity (Flexibility Provider)
Industrial prosumerBusiness actorAn industrial party that consumes electricity (Flexibility Provider)
SCADALogical actorSupervisory Control and Data Acquisition – a supervisory computerized system that gathers and processes data and applies operational controls for transmission side systems used to control dispersed assets
AGCLogical actorAutomatic gain control. Process to determine the amount of power needed to bring back the frequency to the nominal values.
Intermediate platformLogical actorPlatform that aggregates flexibility energy assets (virtual power plant, EV charging management platform)
Small-scale virtual power plantLogical actorThis is a type of Intermediate platforms. Software platform that aggregates the flexibility of residential prosumers and PV power plants
Large-scale virtual power plantLogical actorThis is a type of Intermediate platforms. Software platform that aggregates the flexibility of industrial energy assets and BESS
EV charging management platformLogical actorA platform that manages and aggregates the charging power of multiple EV charging stations
FMTPLogical actorFlexibility Management and Trading Platform
Distributed Energy Resource (DER)AssetGeneric presentation of the energy asset providing flexibility
PV power plantAssetRenewable energy source able to provide flexibility of feed-in
BatteryAssetEnergy storage system capable of providing different services to the grid
P2H systemAssetSystem to convert electricity (optimally from RES) into hydrogen that can be stored to use it eventually for different purposes (feedstock, electricity production, fuel)
Diesel generatorAssetSynchronous generators
EV charging stationDeviceEV charging station

3.2. References

No.References TypeReferenceStatusImpact on Use CaseOrganistaor / OrganisationLink
Operational guidelinesOperational guidelines from ENTSO-EFinalMedium
Operational guidelinesOperational guidelines from the French governmentFinalHigh'%C3%A9nergie.pdf
Role modelENTSO-E Role modelVersion 2020-01Medium

4. Step by Step Analysis of Use Case

4.1. Overview of Scenarios

No.Scenario NameScenario DescriptionPrimary ActorTriggering EventPre-ConditionPost-Condition
Sc1Frequency reserve requirementsCalculating the amount of FCR and FRR neededFrequency reserve requirements
Sc2Detection of the frequency issues - FCRDetection of the frequency deviations locally on the site of the flexibility providerDetection of the frequency issues - FCR
Sc3Detection of the frequency issues - FRRDetection of the frequency deviations centrally in the SCADADetection of the frequency issues - FRR
Sc4Contracting balancing service productsContractual obligations between the SO (EDM) and the flexibility providersContracting balancing service products
Sc5Flexibility activation through local controller - FCRActivation of the flexibility providers automatically using its local controllerFlexibility activation through local controller - FCR
Sc6Flexibility activation through the Flexibility Management and Trading Platform (FMTP) - FRRActivation of the flexibility providers automatically using centralized platform - FMTPFlexibility activation through the Flexibility Management and Trading Platform (FMTP) - FRR
Sc7Settlement process to remunerate flexibility activationValidation and settlement of the activation responsesSettlement process to remunerate flexibility activation
Sc8Frequency control by flexibility providerThe process of flexibility provision by the flexibility providerFrequency control by flexibility provider


4.2. Steps – Scenarios

Scenario Name:
Frequency reserve requirements
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1Periodically (yearly)Define desired conditions for grid frequencyIn a phase of mid-term planning, the SO defines the frequency control strategy, incl. nominal (target) frequency value, frequency bandwidth for operation and frequency thresholds for emergency actionsCREATETSOIE-01-01
2Periodically (yearly)Collect data of the power systemCollect the data to describe the power system (system model), historic measurements (load, frequency) and events (fault statistics)GETTSOIE-01-02 IE-01-03 IE-01-04
3Periodically (yearly)Mid-term & long-term forecastsThe SO generates mid-term and long-term forecasts of the development of consumption and generationCREATETSOIE-01-05
4Periodically (yearly)Define design scenariosThe SO identifies critical situations (e.g., yearly peak load, separation of parts of the grid, etc.) and defines design scenarios comprising all possible critical situations.CREATETSOIE-01-06
5Periodically (yearly)Calculate the required amount of flexibility- balancing reserve needed on the island - FRRThe SO assesses the amount of flexibility (FCR, FRR balancing reserve) required to perform the load-frequency control of the power system of the geographical islands.CREATETSOIE-01-07
6St5 finishedDefine balancing service productsBased on the required amount of flexibility the SO defines appropriate balancing productsCREATETSOIE-01-08
Scenario Name:
Detection of the frequency issues - FCR
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1Periodically (interval of 1s of faster)Measure the network frequencyEnergy assets (central assets or DER) capable of providing FCR reserve are equipped with an accurate frequency meter to continuously measure frequency of the point of grid connection in real-timeCREATEIE-02-01
2New frequency measurement availableSubmit the measured frequency to the local controllerThe measured frequency must be sent to the local controller capable of receiving freq. measurements in real-timeGETIE-02-01
3When freq. measurements arrive to the local controllerCalculate frequency deviationAn algorithm on the PLC compares the measured frequency with the target value and calculates the deviationCREATEIE-02-02
Scenario Name:
Detection of the frequency issues - FRR
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1ContinuouslyMeasure grid frequencyAn accurate (central) frequency meter located in a major substation (e.g., Longoni, Badamiers) measures frequency of the grid in real-timeCREATEIE-03-01
2ContinuouslyReceive frequency measurementThe measured frequency is received by the AGC embedded in the SCADA.GETIE-03-01
3Frequency measurement received by AGCMeasured frequency is stored and available for processingThe frequency measurements need to be persisted and available in real time and for later analysis. The SCADA (where AGC is embedded) saved the measurements in a database.REPORTSCADAIE-03-01
4Frequency measurement received by AGCCalculate the frequency deviationCalculate the difference between the current measured frequency and the define nominal (target) frequency (e.g., 50 Hz)CREATEAGCIE-03-02
5Frequency deviation calculatedCalculate the new FRR setpointBased on the actual frequency deviation and its change in time the control algorithm calculates the new FRR setpointCHANGEAGCIE-03-03
Scenario Name:
Contracting balancing service products
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1After definition of technical require-mentsPublish technical and market rules for balancing servicesThe SO publishes the document describing the balancing services, their technical and administrative requirements and tendered products.CREATETSOIE-04-01
2After reception of balancing service rulesFlexibility providers prepare for participation in balancing services(3rd party) flexibility providers able to fulfil the SO’s requirements prepare for participation via the FMTP, directly or by aggregation via an intermediate platform (e.g., analyse available flexible power, identify suitable flexibility services and products, fulfil technical requirements). Finally, the flexibility provider or aggregator requests the prequalification of the DER (if directly connected to the FMTP).EXECUTEFlexibility providerIE-04-02
3After reception of tender announcementAggregators prepare for participation in balancing servicesAggregators prepare for balancing service provision, implementing the technical requirements and establishing contracts with flexibility providers. Finally, the aggregator requests the prequalification of the intermediate platform.EXECUTEIE-04-03
4SO received request for prequalificationPrequalify flexibility providerThe SO and flexibility provider (and aggregator if involved) conduct a series of tests to confirm the technical and administrative capability of the DER (and intermediate platform if involved) to provide the balancing services according to the SO’s requirements. The step is finalized by issuing the confirmation of prequalification by the SO.EXECUTETSOIE-04-04
5Periodically (yearly, monthly, weekly, or daily)Publish tender for balancing servicesThe SO details the balancing market products and starts a tendering process and informs all prequalified flexibility providers about the tenderCREATETSOIE-04-05
6St5 finalizedSubmit balancing services bidsThe prequalified flexibility providers forecast the available power for the tendered balancing service products and calculate the costs of service provision. Then the most suitable balancing products are identified and balancing service bids are submitted via FMTP.CREATEFlexibility providerIE-04-06
7SO received bid for balancing service provisionContract balancing servicesThe SO selects the most favourable bids for flexibility service provision according to the tendering rules and informs the flexibility providers about acceptance or rejection of their bids via the FMTP. The acceptance of a balancing service bid is equivalent to a legal contract between SO and flexibility provider.EXECUTETSOIE-04-07
Scenario Name:
Flexibility activation through local controller - FCR
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1Reception of FCR bid acceptanceEnable FCR serviceThe FCR functionality is unlocked via the PLC of the DER during the timespan defined in the accepted FCR bid.CREATEIE-05-01
2FCR provision enabledCalculate FCR setpointThe PLC calculates the FCR setpoint depending on the frequency deviation (calculated on-site and in real time, see scenario 2) based on an algorithm defined by the SO; e.g., a linear curve PFCR=f(Df)CREATEIE-05-02
3FCR setpoint calculated (continuously, e.g., 1s interval)Follow new FCR setpointThe DER adapts the active power feed-in (or consumption) according to the FCR setpoint within the required FAT.EXECUTEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-05-02
4Continuously (e.g., 1s interval)Send monitoring data to FMTPAs long as the FCR service provision is enabled (timespan of the accepted FCR bid), the PLC sends monitoring data to the FMTP, where it is forwarded to the AGC)CREATEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-05-03
5ContinuouslyValidate FCR provisionThe AGC receives the FCR monitoring data and compares the measurements with the expected behaviour.CREATEAGCIE-05-04
6FCR malperformance detectedInform flexibility provider about malperformanceThe SO informs the flexibility provider about the FCR malperformance and orders immediate correction of the behaviourREPORTTSOIE-05-04
7FCR validation report receivedRemedy FCR malperformanceThe flexibility provider updates the DER control algorithms in order to remedy the FCR malperformance and to provide the FCR service according to technical specifications.EXECUTEFlexibility providerIE-05-04
Scenario Name:
Flexibility activation through the Flexibility Management and Trading Platform (FMTP) - FRR
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1Reception of FRR bid acceptanceEnable FRR serviceThe FRR functionality is unlocked on the intermediate platform and/or the PLC of the DER during the timespan defined in the accepted FRR bid. The PLC starts waiting to receive activation requests from the FMTP or intermediate platform.CREATEIntermediate platformIE-06-01
2New FRR setpoint availableDispatch balancing assetsThe new FRR setpoint is dispatched between central balancing assets (diesel engines operated by the SO) and distributed balancing assets (DER operated by third party).CREATEAGCIE-06-02 IE-06-03
3aCentral assets’ FRR setpoint updatedReceive new FRR setpointsCentral balancing assets (operated by the SO) receive their new individual setpointGETDiesel generatorIE-06-02
3bDecentral assets’ FRR setpoint updatedReceive new FRR setpointsThe updated FRR setpoint is received by the FMTP platform.GETFMTPIE-06-03
4FMTP received a new FRR setpointFMTP dispatches contracted flexibility providersThe FMTP distributes the received FRR setpoint between the contracted flexibility providers (DERs or intermediate platforms) based on predefined rules (pro-rata or according to merit order), and submits the activation requests (direct setpoint or activation schedule).EXECUTEFMTPIE-06-04
5Intermediate platform receives activation requestIntermediate platform distributes activation requestsThe intermediate platform disaggregates the received activation request and forwards the setpoints to the connected DER, which previously indicated availability.EXECUTEIntermediate platformIE-06-05
6DER received the activation requestFRR provision by DERThe DER changes its generation or consumption according to the received setpoint within the required FAT (details see scenario 8).EXECUTEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-06-05
7Continuously (e.g., in 2s interval)Send monitoring data to intermediate platformAs long as the FRR service provision is enabled (timespan of the accepted FRR bid), the DER sends monitoring data to the intermediate platform.CREATEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-06-06
8Continuously (e.g., in 2s interval)Send monitoring data to AGCThe intermediate platform receives monitoring data from the connected DER and aggregates the values. The aggregated values are sent to the FMTP. Alternatively, large DER send monitoring data directly to the FMTP, without aggregation via an intermediate platform.CREATEIntermediate platformIE-06-07
9aContinuouslyValidate FRR provisionThe FMTP receives the FRR monitoring data and compares the measurements with the expected behaviour.CREATEFMTP
9bYearlyValidate FRR provisionIn case of doubts, the SO compares FRR monitoring data with (public) meter readings.EXECUTETSO
10FRR malperformance detectedInform flexibility provider about malperformanceThe SO informs the flexibility provider about the FRR malperformance and orders immediate correction of the behaviour.REPORTTSO
11FRR validation report receivedRemedy FRR malperformanceThe flexibility provider updates the DER control algorithms in order to remedy the FRR malperformance and to provide the FRR service according to technical specifications.EXECUTEFlexibility provider
Scenario Name:
Settlement process to remunerate flexibility activation
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1DailyProcess monitoring dataIn the morning hours the energy activated during the previous day is calculated individually for each balancing service contract (accepted bid).EXECUTETSOIE-04-07 IE-06-07
2After completing previous stepAccounting of balancing service provisionThe activated energy and reserved capacity (provided by the aggregator or flexibility provider) is accounted per accepted bid and summarized by flexibility provider.CREATETSOIE-07-01
3MonthlyRemuneration of flexibility service provisionThe daily remuneration of balancing service provision is summarized for the entire past month and remunerated to each flexibility providerEXECUTETSOIE-07-02
Scenario Name:
Frequency control by flexibility provider
Step No.Event.Name of Process/ ActivityDescription of Process/ Activity.ServiceInformation Producer (Actor)Information Receiver (Actor)Information ExchangedRequirements, R-ID
1DailyForecast flexible capacity for upcoming tender periodThe flexibility provider forecasts the amount and costs of the balancing service provision for the next tender period.CREATEFlexibility provider Distributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-08-01
2Previous step finalizedAggregator receives flexibility forecastThe aggregator receives the flexible capacity & cost forecasts of all contracted flexibility providers (DERs) and creates a merit order of flexibility.CREATEIntermediate platformIE-08-02
3Previous step finalizedParticipation in balancing service tenderThe aggregator participates in the balancing service tender, creates bids and submits the bids to the FMTP. (See scenario 4)CREATEIE-04-06
4Bid acceptance message receivedFlexibility reservation requestThe aggregator informs the connected DER about required flexibility reservation for the next product period and the conditions for balancing service provision.CREATEIE-08-02
5Flexibility reservation request receivedFlexibility reservationThe DER reserves the requested flexibility for the product period.EXECUTEIE-08-02
6ContinuouslyReal-time flexibility calculationThe DER calculates the actual flexibility bandwidth in real time and reports the values to the intermediary platform.CREATEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-08-03
7ContinuouslyListen to incoming setpointsThe PLC receives a setpoint to start an activationGETIntermediate platformIE-06-05
8Activation setpoint received by DERStart activation programAfter receiving a new setpoint (see (see scenario 6), the PLC of the DER initiates the activation program (ramp-up) in order to meet the setpoint received from the intermediary platform within the FAT.EXECUTEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-06-05
9ContinuouslyListen to incoming setpointsThe PLC receives a new setpoint to change the power of an activationGETIntermediate platformIE-06-05
10New activation setpoint received by DERChange activation programThe PLC of the DER updates the activation program (ramp-up) in order to meet the new setpoint within the FAT.EXECUTEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-06-05
11ContinuouslyListen to incoming setpointsThe PLC receives a setpoint of 0 MW to end the ongoing activation.GETIntermediate platformIE-06-05
12Activation end received by DEREnd activation programThe PLC of the DER initiates the end activation program (ramp-down) in order and the balancing energy provision within the FAT.EXECUTEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-06-05
13Continuously (e.g., 2s interval)Send monitoring dataThe DER processes the actual measurements and sends the required monitoring data to the intermediary platform.CREATEDistributed Energy Resource (DER)IE-06-06

5. Information Exchanged

Information exchanged IDName of InformationDescription of Information ExchangedRequirement

6. Requirements (optional)

Category IdentifierNameDescriptionmRID
Req_IDReq_Name‘Frequency control’
IE-01-01frequency band-width and emergency thresholdsPredefined bandwidth of allowed system frequency, including target value (50 Hz) and thresholds for initiating emergency measuresIE-01-01
IE-01-02System modelModel of the power system supporting dynamic analysesIE-01-02
IE-01-03historic measurementsHistoric timeseries of measured generation, consumption and system frequencyIE-01-03
IE-01-04Fault statisticsStatistics of faults in the power system that are relevant for balancing reserve dimensioningIE-01-04
IE-01-05Consumption forecastsMid-term (timeseries) of the total consumptionIE-01-05
IE-01-06Design scenariosExpected critical situations (e.g., yearly peak load, separation of parts of the grid, etc.) relevant for balancing reserve dimensioningIE-01-06
IE-01-07Required amount of balancing reserveRequired number of balancing reserves to ensure a stable operation of the power system, (e.g., 99.975% reliability)IE-01-07
IE-01-08Balancing products and requirementsDefinition of balancing products and requirements comprising: products (duration, min. bid size, direction, tolerances)IE-01-08
IE-02-01Network frequencyActual measurements of network frequency measured on-site by DERIE-02-01
IE-02-02Frequency deviationActual frequency deviation detected on-site at DERIE-02-02
IE-03-01Grid FrequencyActual measurements of grid frequency centrally acquired by SOIE-03-01
IE-03-02Frequency deviationActual frequency deviation detected centrally by SOIE-03-02
IE-03-03Updated FRR setpointActual FRR setpoint calculated by AGC, sum for all assets participating in FRR service provisionIE-03-03
IE-04-01Balancing services rulesThe document describing the rules for participation in balancing services, their technical and administrative requirements and tendered products, as well as the prequalification procedureIE-04-01
IE-04-02Request for prequalification of DERThe flexibility provider (DER operator) applies for the prequalification for the balancing service participation.IE-04-02
IE-04-03Request for prequalification of platformThe aggregator (intermediate platform operator) applies for the prequalification for the balancing service participation.IE-04-03
IE-04-04Confirmation of prequalificationThe SO confirms the successful prequalification of a DER or platform. Confirmation may need to be renewed after an expiry period.IE-04-04
IE-04-05Rules and schedules of balancing service tenderThe SO publishes the rules and schedules of balancing service tender, including description of tendered balancing service products.IE-04-05
IE-04-06Balancing service bid documentThe aggregator or flexibility provider participates in the tender for balancing services by submitting one or multiple binding bids. Bids contains ID of bidder, date, timespan, product ID, power, capacity price, energy price.IE-04-06
IE-04-07Balancing service bid acceptanceThe SO informs the bidders about acceptance or rejection of the bids submitted in the tender.IE-04-07
IE-05-01FCR provision enabledThe (PLC of the) DER enabled the FCR functionality and starts detecting the frequency deviations.IE-05-01
IE-05-02FCR setpointFCR setpoint calculated on-site by PLC (DER)IE-05-02
IE-05-03FCR monitoring dataThe FCR monitoring data includes local measurements of frequency, active power, calculated setpoint, actual FCR provision. It is submitted in short intervals (e.g., of 2s).IE-05-03
IE-05-04FCR validation reportThe FCR validation report summarizes the quality of FCR service provision of a flexibility provider.IE-05-04
IE-06-01FRR provision enabledThe (PLC of the) DER enabled the FCR functionality and starts listening for incoming setpointsIE-06-01
IE-06-02FRR setpoints for central balancing assetsFRR setpoints for central balancing assets (controlled by the SO)IE-06-02
IE-06-03FRR setpoint for DERFRR setpoints for DER (controlled by 3rd party flexibility providers)IE-06-03
IE-06-04FRR Activation requestsNoneIE-06-04
IE-06-05Individual FRR setpointsIndividual FRR setpoints for DER controlled via an intermedia platformIE-06-05
IE-06-06Individual FRR monitoring dataMonitoring data of individual DER, which is sent to an intermediate platform. Datapoints: active power, baseline, setpoint, FRR activation, control bandwidthIE-06-06
IE-06-07Aggregated FRR monitoring dataAggregated monitoring data of a pool of DER (managed by an intermediary platform), which is sent to the FMTP. Datapoints: active power, baseline, setpoint, FRR activation, control bandwidthIE-06-07
IE-07-01Daily balancing service accountingAccounting of provided balancing energy and related costs (according to balancing service bid document), created on d+1IE-07-01
IE-07-02Monthly balancing service accounting and remuneration reportMonthly sum of Daily balancing service accounting positions, which are used for remuneration of the flexibility providerIE-07-02
IE-08-01Forecast of flexible capacity and costsThe forecast of flexible capacity and costs of a DER is generated for the entire upcoming product duration, that is tendered.IE-08-01
IE-08-02Flexibility merit orderThe flexibility merit order sorts the DER’s flexibility forecasts according to their costs (from cheapest to most expensive).IE-08-02
IE-08-03Actual flexibility of DERThe actual flexibility bandwidth of a DERIE-08-03

7. Common Terms and Definitions

8. Custom Information (optional)

KeyValueRefers to Section